Bruno Sammartino


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Bruno Sammartino
Real name Bruno Leopoldo Francesco Sammartino
Nickname(s) Ningen Hatsudensho (人間発電所?) (Human Power Plant)
Billed height 180 cm (5 ft 11 in)
Billed weight 120 kg (260 lb; 19 st)
Born 1935/10/6 (1935-10-06) (age 82)
Pizzoferrato, Italy
Debut 1959/12/17
Retired 1987

Bruno Leopoldo Francesco Sammartino is an Italian-American former professional wrestler, best known for being the longest-running champion of the World Wide Wrestling Federation (WWWF), holding the title across two reigns for over 11 years in total, as well as the longest single WWWF World Heavyweight Championship reign in the history.

During the period when Madison Square Garden was the WWWF's primary arena, Sammartino headlined more Garden cards than any other wrestler (211), including 187 sellouts.


Early life

Born in Pizzoferrato, Abruzzo, Italy on 1935/10/06, Sammartino was the youngest of seven brothers and sisters. Four older siblings died during his time in Italy. During his childhood, Sammartino's family hid from German soldiers in a mountain called Valla Rocca, during the latter stages of World War II.[1] During this time, Sammartino's mother, Emilia, would sneak into their German-occupied town for food and supplies.[1] She once was captured and another time shot in the shoulder during such trips. Eventually, Sammartino caught rheumatic fever but was nursed back to health by his mother with hot blankets and leeches. In 1950, he moved to the United States and settled in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where his father had already lived for several years.[1]

When Sammartino first came to America, he was sickly from his experiences of surviving during the war years.[1] His slight frame, along with his tenuous grasp of English, made him an easy target for bullies in school. Sammartino wanted to build himself up physically and became devoted to weight training.

Bruno's devotion to weightlifting nearly resulted in a berth on the 1956 U.S. Olympic team. He was edged out by legendary strongman Paul Anderson - who outweighed Sammartino by 70 pounds.

Bruno set a world record in the bench press with a lift of 565 pounds in 1960.

Sammartino also competed in bodybuilding and won "Mr. Allegheny" in the late 50s.

His high school did not have a wrestling program, but he worked out with the University of Pittsburgh wrestling team under storied coach Rex Peary. Sammartino became known for performing strongman stunts in the Pittsburgh area, and sportscaster Bob Prince put him on his television show. It was there that he was spotted by local wrestling promoter Rudy Miller, who recruited Sammartino for professional wrestling. Miller knew that Sammartino could easily be marketed as an ethnic strongman, and that he would appeal to Italian immigrants who supported wrestling.

Professional wrestling career

Studio Wrestling (1959–1974)

Sammartino made his professional debut in Pittsburgh on 1959/12/17, pinning Dmitri Grabowski in 19 seconds.[2] On 12/23, he defeated Miguel Torres, for the local Spectator Sports promotion, in Pittsburgh. He soon became extremely popular. The name of the local TV wrestling program was Studio Wrestling and it was broadcast on WIIC-TV Channel 11. The host was Pittsburgh personality "Chilly" Bill Cardille.

In 1966, Sammartino bought the Pittsburgh-based Spectator Sports promotion. The promotion was a stopping point for national stars such as Gorilla Monsoon, Crusher Lisowski, Bill Watts, George Steele, and Bobo Brazil, as well as featuring local talent like Johnny DeFazio, Frank "Carnegie Cop" Holtz, Hurricane Hunt, Tony "The Battman" Marino, and John L. Sullivan (who later gained fame as Johnny Valiant). Unlike many promoters, Bruno was said to be a good pay-off man & very fair to his fellow wrestlers. Many men, including George "The Animal" Steele, have stated that Bruno has always shown concern for how much all of the wrestlers earn on a card - not just himself. Sammartino sold the promotion in 1971. He was later asked by the new Buffalo-based owners to help with the booking of Pittsburgh area shows. The local TV show was canceled in 1974, and the promotion shut down. The Pittsburgh area then became part of the WWWF territory.

World Wide Wrestling Federation/World Wrestling Federation (1959–1988)

Early headlines (1959–1962)

Sammartino's first match in Madison Square Garden in New York City was 1960/01/02/ against Bull Curry (who was substituting for Killer Kowalski). Within six months of his debut in wrestling, Sammartino was headlining at Madison Square Garden (starting in tag matches, teaming with Antonino Rocca).

On 1961/02/18, Sammartino faced Chick Garibaldi in an afternoon match at the Sunnyside Gardens in New York. During the match, Sammartino bodyslammed Garibaldi and immediately noticed his opponent's eyes roll up inside his head. By the time the ref checked on the fallen wrestler, he was dead in the ring. It was later determined that Garibaldi had died from a heart attack. In the movie Legends Never Die, Sammartino stated that it took him many years to get over that incident.

Sammartino made major headlines when he became the first (and only) man to lift the 640 lb (290 kg) Haystack Calhoun in a match. He did not slam him as much as lift him shoulder-height...and drop him.

After tiring of low payoffs and broken promises, Sammartino left Vincent McMahon Sr.'s Capitol Wrestling Corporation to join a rival New York promoter and former McMahon Sr. partner Kola Kwariani. Kwariani's hold on New York soon weakened because of low attendance and athletic commission pressure to curb violence. In an effort to increase attendance, Kwariani had Sammartino wrestle his tag partner Antonino Rocca twice during this time. Sammartino was then told by Rudy Miller to jump back to McMahon.

Sammartino found himself with even fewer dates and payoffs than the first time he wrestled for McMahon. He gave notice to McMahon that he was going to San Francisco, and its large Italian population, to wrestle for promoter Roy Shire. Very soon after arriving, Sammartino was informed by the local athletic commission that he was suspended. Unable to find work across the country (because every state athletic commission honors suspensions given by other state athletic commissions), Bruno headed back to Pittsburgh to work as a laborer. Sammartino found out that his suspension was due to his skipping a match he was booked for in Baltimore. He was also booked to wrestle in Chicago that same night. In his autobiography, Sammartino states that he believed McMahon set him up, by double-booking him and not informing him of his match in Baltimore, as a way of punishment for working for Kwariani.

On the advice of wrestler Yukon Eric, Bruno contacted Toronto promoter Frank Tunney hoping to take advantage of Toronto's large Italian population. Despite McMahon trying to blackball him there as well, Tunney decided to take a chance. Bruno made his Toronto debut in 1962/03 and very quickly, with the help of self-promotion in local newspapers and radio programs, became an attraction. His ability to speak Italian also ingratiated himself with that immigrant population. With Canadian legend Whipper Billy Watson, Bruno won his first championship in 1962/09, the local version of the International tag team title. Soon, he was in demand by other promoters in different Canadian territories.

During his tenure in Toronto, Bruno wrestled and beat the (then) National Wrestling Alliance (NWA) Champion Buddy Rogers for the title. Rogers was unable to continue after being accidentally butted in the groin while attempting a leap frog. Sammartino refused to accept the title under the circumstances.

Sammartino also wrestled NWA Champ Lou Thesz twice in Canada. One match ended in a draw and the other with Thesz scoring a fluke pin after a collision despite Sammartino controlling the 20 minute match from the beginning. Thesz recounted the matches as nothing special. Bruno has said in interviews that noted "shooter" Thesz did not try to take any advantage of him (as he often did in matches against wrestlers he did not like), but that he was prepared to respond in the event he did.

Meanwhile, McMahon Sr. was having a tough time drawing fans with newly created World Wide Wrestling Federation Champion Buddy Rogers in New York. Tired of dealing with the NWA, McMahon crowned Rogers WWWF Champ in a mythical tournament set in Rio de Janiero, Brazil soon after Rogers dropped the NWA title to Thesz. McMahon claimed the title change was not legit, since in those days, the title matches were 2 out of 3 falls - and Thesz won a one fall victory.

Eventually, promoters Toots Mondt and McMahon Sr. cleared up Sammartino's suspension by paying his $500 fine (Bruno says they took it out of his future purses). After many weeks of phone calls with McMahon trying to lure Bruno back, Sammartino demanded a title run.

To show his gratitude to Tunney, Sammartino still wrestled every other Sunday on the big shows - regardless of how hectic his schedule became.

First WWWF Championship reign (1963–1971)

Sammartino won the WWWF World Heavyweight Championship on 1963/05/17, defeating "Nature Boy" Buddy Rogers in just 48 seconds. Bruno has said in interviews that Rogers had to be tricked into the MSG main event. Supposedly, Rogers was to win on some sort of disqualification. It was Sammartino himself that broke the news to him in the ring. He simply said, "We can do this the easy way...or the hard way." Rogers could not cope with the power of Sammartino from the very beginning. Whilst the crowd at Madison Square Garden had expected a tough contest they were shocked at the manner in which Sammartino was able to completely dominate the champion. It took just 48 seconds to crown Sammartino the WWWF Champion. Distraught and surprised Rogers quickly left the ring.

Rogers claimed until his dying day that he had suffered a heart attack a week before the match and was dragged out of a hospital to have the match. Bruno has said (and other wrestlers on the card verify) that all wrestlers were examined and passed by the State Athletic Commission doctor that night as was customary in those days. Bruno has also pointed out that if Rogers was sick, he never took time off from his schedule after he lost the belt. Some commentators wondered if Rogers was ever the same after such a devastating and one sided loss.

Sammartino headlined cards that filled Madison Square Garden on a monthly basis. He battled the top heels of his time, including Killer Kowalski, Giant Baba, Gene Kiniski, Bill Miller, Jerry Graham, Bull Ramos, Hans Mortier, Waldo Von Erich, Crusher Lisowski, Johnny Valentine, The Sheik, Fred Blassie, Curtis Iaukea, Tarzan Tyler, Bill Watts, Gorilla Monsoon, Professor Tanaka, Handsome Johnny Barend, The Kentucky Butcher (John Quinn) and George Steele.

Sammartino kept this title for seven years, eight months, and one day; it still stands as the longest continuous world title reign in men's wrestling history. Sammartino defended the belt all over the world, including Australia, Spain, Mexico and Japan.

Bruno was honored with a private audience with the Pope in the Vatican during this period.

In 1967/03, Sammartino went to Japan for the first time and challenged Giant Baba for the International Heavyweight Championship on JWA tour.

Bruno then toured in Japan for the second time in 1968/08. On 08/07, he challegend Baba's International Title again. On 08/09, Bruno teamed with Ray Stevens to challenge Baba & Antonio Inoki for the NWA International Tag Team Championship. This was Sammartino's only match facing Inoki.

On 1971/01/18, Sammartino lost the championship at Madison Square Garden to Ivan Koloff. The crowd was so stunned into silence that Sammartino thought his hearing had been damaged. After the pin, Koloff slowly walked across the ring while the ref raised his hand three times. The announcer came into the ring with the belt but, fearful of a riot, did not present it to Koloff. Koloff left the ring while Sammartino stayed inside to keep the crowd's attention off Koloff. As Sammartino left the ring, people started crying.

Sammartino has said that the crowd's reaction disturbed him while he sat in the dressing room after the match. Three weeks later, Pedro Morales beat Koloff to win the title; Sammartino congratulated Morales as the new champion was announced. While Morales drew well in New York, the crowds declined in other cities.

Later in 1972, Sammartino was asked back by McMahon Sr. to regain the title. After refusing McMahon's initial offer, Sammartino was offered a percentage of all the gates when he wrestled and a decreased work schedule.

Soon after, Bruno and champion Morales teamed up for a series of tag matches. In a televised match, Professor Tanaka blinded both men with salt and they were maneuvered into fighting each other. When their eyes cleared, to the surprise of the crowd, they kept fighting each other.

Two weeks later, all syndicated wrestling shows in the WWWF showed a clip of Morales and Sammartino signing a contract for a title match at Shea Stadium in Queens, New York. When McMahon gestured for them to shake hands, both wordlessly turned and walked away. On 1972/09/01, they wrestled to a 75-minute draw at the Stadium.[2] Despite miserable weather (cold & rainy), the gate narrowly missed becoming the largest take for an outdoor wrestling show at that time.

Second WWWF Championship reign (1973–1977)

On 1973/12/10, Sammartino regained the WWWF Championship by defeating Stan Stasiak who had won the title from Pedro Morales nine days earlier in Philadelphia, which was chosen as the location of the title change because of the passionate nature of Morales' following at Madison Square Garden. WWWF officials felt a riot might ensue if Pedro was beaten at the Garden.

In his second reign, Bruno defeated contenders such as John Tolos, Bruiser Brody, Spiros Arion, Ken Patera, Bugsy McGraw, Fred Blassie, Baron Von Raschke, Waldo Von Erich, Ivan Koloff, Billy Graham, Don Leo Jonathan, Angelo Mosca, Ernie Ladd, Bobby Duncum and Nikolai Volkoff. He also encountered old foes Killer Kowalski and George Steele. His second title run lasted three years, four months, and twenty days.

During this time, on 1976/04/26, Sammartino suffered a neck fracture in a match against Stan Hansen at Madison Square Garden, when Hansen improperly executed a body slam and dropped Sammartino on his head. Despite doctors' orders, Bruno insisted on flying home to Pittsburgh that night. Sammartino was concerned that his elderly parents would find out he was in a New York hospital with a broken neck and would die from the shock.

After two months, Sammartino famously returned, and faced Hansen in a rematch on 1976/06/25 at Shea Stadium, which was on the closed circuit TV undercard of the famous Antonio Inoki vs. Muhammad Ali match for WWWF cities. Sammartino was rushed back into action by Vince McMahon Sr. when the advance gate for the show was a disaster. McMahon claims that the entire WWWF was in peril of folding because of his investment in this card.

Bruno was in no shape to wrestle but nonetheless entered the ring to score a decisive count-out win when Hansen ran away. More importantly, Sammartino drew a large live audience, and big closed circuit TV receipts (the Ali/Inoki match, without the Sammartino/Hansen match, drew very poorly in most of America.) Bruno contends that he was never paid the percentage of the closed circuit gate that he was promised.

The match was rated 1976 Match of the Year by a number of wrestling magazines. Subsequently, after a chance to recover and train, Sammartino scored decisive cage match wins over Hansen around the WWWF circuit.

His second title reign was only supposed to last a year but each year Bruno received bigger payoffs to stay on. Around this time, Bruno's yearly pay equaled that of the highest paid athletes in any professional sport. With only having to appear in the biggest arenas and with an increase of the gate percentages, Bruno had, up to this point, the greatest financial deal in wrestling history.

In early 1977, after suffering the broken neck and many other ailments, Bruno informed McMahon Sr. that he was done with his second title reign. It ended in Baltimore on 1977/04/30, when he was defeated by Billy Graham. In a controversial ending, Graham had both feet braced on the ropes (which is illegal in pro wrestling) while successfully pinning Sammartino.

Later WWWF/WWF Career & Initial Retirement (1978–1981)

Despite a very long and financially successful series of re-matches against Billy Graham, Sammartino was unable/unwilling to regain the title. His final attempt was in Philadelphia, just a few days before Graham would lose the title to Bob Backlund. The match was the only documented instance of Sammartino losing a steel cage match. He lost by accidentally knocking a bloody and battered Graham through the cage door.

After his second reign ended, Sammartino leisurely toured around the world. He wrestled then NWA World Heavyweight Champion Harley Race to a one hour draw in St. Louis. He also wrestled and defeated Blackjack Mulligan, Lord Alfred Hayes, Dick Murdoch, Kinji Shibuya, and Ray Stevens.

During this time period, Sammartino did a rare "clean job" for Killer Kowalski in Canada. At the time, Kowalski was the local World Champion and recounted in an interview that "he was touched" his old friend & rival would do that for him.

One of the most emotional feuds of Sammartino's career started on 1980/01/22, when his former student Larry Zbyszko violently turned against him during a scientific wrestling exhibition, broadcast on the World Wrestling Federation's Championship Wrestling show. Sammartino, shocked and hurt by Zbyszko's betrayal, vowed to make Zbyszko (whom Bruno described as a "Judas") pay dearly. Their feud culminated on 1980/08/09, in front of 36,295 fans at Shea Stadium. As the main event of 1980's Showdown at Shea, Sammartino defeated Zbyszko inside a steel cage. This feud is considered by many wrestling historians and journalists to be the biggest feud in the history of wrestling in the northeast.

In his autobiography, Hulk Hogan claimed that his match with André the Giant was the real reason for the huge draw at Shea Stadium; however the feud between Sammartino and Zbyszko sold out everywhere in the build-up to the show. In contrast Hogan and André headlined exactly one card in White Plains, New York before they wrestled at Shea. They drew a paltry 1,200 in a building that held 3,500.

Sammartino retired from North American wrestling full-time in 1981, in a match that opened the Meadowlands Arena in East Rutherford, New Jersey. Sammartino pinned George Steele in his match. Sammartino then finished up his full-time career by touring Japan. On 1981/10/09, Sammartino wrestled for All Japan's 10th anniversary card to team with Baba to face Tiger Jeet Singh & Ueda Umanosuke.

Return to WWF (1984–1988)

In 1984, Bruno made an appearance at an Italian Festival in Wheeling, West Virginia to do a weightlifting exhibition while there he was interviewed by a local TV station and when asked if he still watched TV wrestling he said it made him sick and that he would never watch it. He did not like the direction that it was taking.

It was during this time Sammartino found out through Angelo Savoldi, a recently fired office employee of Capitol Wrestling Corporation, that he had been cheated by Vince McMahon Sr. on the promised gate percentages for his entire second title run. Bruno filed suit against McMahon and his Capitol Wrestling Corporation.[3] The suit was eventually settled out of court by McMahon's son, Vince McMahon Jr. after his father had died. Part of the settlement included Sammartino returning to do color commentary on WWF television in exchange for hundreds of thousands of dollars for what amounted to nineteen days of work.

The primary reason Sammartino returned was an attempt to promote the wrestling career of his son David Sammartino, who became a wrestler against his father's wishes. Despite lingering effects from previous injuries, Sammartino agreed to come out of retirement to help his son launch his career. Bruno says that this time period was his least favorite of his career.

At the inaugural WrestleMania in 1985, Sammartino was in his son's corner, for his match against Brutus Beefcake. The match ended in a double-disqualification after the Sammartinos began brawling with Beefcake and his manager Johnny Valiant. He returned to in ring action soon after with his son, as they wrestled against Beefcake & Valiant at a sold out Madison Square Garden. The Sammartinos also teamed against Paul Orndorff and Bobby Heenan in various arenas. Despite being in his mid-50's, Sammartino proved to be in much better physical shape than his opponents, often leaving them "blown up" by the middle of the match.

Sammartino's most notable feud during this run was with "Macho Man" Randy Savage. An irate Sammartino attacked Savage during a TV interview, after Savage bragged about injuring Ricky Steamboat, by driving the timekeeper's bell into Steamboat's throat during a televised match.

Sammartino defeated Savage in a lumberjack match for the WWF Intercontinental Championship via disqualification. This allowed Savage to keep the belt, as titles cannot change hands via count out or disqualification.

Sammartino would often teamed with Tito Santana and his old enemy George "The Animal" Steele (who was a face at this point in his career) to wrestle Savage and Adrian Adonis. The climax of the their feud came was a victory for Sammartino & Santana in a steel cage match in Madison Square Garden.

Sammartino then engaged in a feud with Roddy Piper after Piper insulted his heritage on a segment of Piper's Pit at Madison Square Garden. Sammartino faced Piper in both singles & tag matches. Sammartino teamed with Paul Orndorff in his matches against Piper, while Piper would tag with Bob Orton Jr.. Sammartino would eventually get the upper hand in the feud, by defeating Piper in a steel cage match at the Boston Garden.

In 1986 Sammartino competed in a 20-man battle royal at WrestleMania 2 in at the Rosemont Horizon in Chicago. The battle royal featured not only professional wrestlers but also professional football players. Sammarino was eliminated by Killer Kowalski protege Big John Studd. Andre would go on to win the battle royal.

Later on in 1986 Sammartino would team with Jake "the Snake" Roberts, and Santana in a 6 man Elimination Tag Team Match against The Hart Foundation & The Honky Tonk Man. Sammartino was the sole survivor of the match pinning the Honky Tonk Man for the win.

Sammartino's last major feud came in the summer of 1987 against The Honky Tonk Man for the WWF Intercontinental Championship. Although he dominated the matches against the champion, Sammartino never won the title, winning most of his matches by count out or disqualification.

Sammartino also feuded with Hercules Hernandez during this time. Sammartino had his last singles match in the WWF against on 1987/04/28 as he defeated Hercules via count out at the Paul Boesch Retirement Show in Houston, Texas.

Sammartino's final WWF match saw him team with Hulk Hogan to defeat King Kong Bundy & One Man Gang. Sammartino continued doing commentary on the WWF Superstars of Wrestling until 1988/03.

Post WWF Career (1988 - present)

On 1989/10/28, Sammartino made a special appearance at the NWA PPV Halloween Havoc, where he was the special guest referee in a "Thunderdome" cage match which featured Ric Flair and Sting taking on Terry Funk and Great Muta. Sammartino ended up exchanging blows with Muta at the end of the match and ran him off.

Sammartino would appear at several WCW events in a minor analysis role in the early 1990s.

Over the years, Bruno has become an outspoken critic of the path McMahon and his ilk have taken pro wrestling, particularly in the use of steroids, other illicit drugs and borderline obscene wrestling angles. In the last stage of his career, he refused to travel with the younger wrestlers for fear of being stopped in a vehicle containing drugs. McMahon provided wrestler-turned-road-agent Chief Jay Strongbow (Joe Scarpa) as a travel partner.

He has often appeared in the media in opposition to the WWE on shows like Phil Donahue, Geraldo, CNN News, etc.

On 2004/07/26, Sammartino met in Pittsburgh with Vince and WWE officials about doing a DVD release and providing commentary for WWE 24/7 Classics, but Sammartino would not agree to be a part of the current product.

He was invited to stay for the Raw show that night, but declined because he did not want to be seen endorsing the product. He was told the main event was Chris Benoit vs. Triple H. He reportedly told them he would have stayed if Benoit was wrestling Kurt Angle; one of the people he said this to was Triple H, who he did not know. Contract talks stalled.

In 2006, he signed an independent deal with Jakks Pacific to produce an action figure, which is part of the WWE Classic Superstars line, Series 10.[4]

Sammartino has appeared for independent wrestling promotion Ring of Honor, and was featured on Total Nonstop Action's Kurt Angle biographical DVD. In it, he praises Angle and says that he generally does not watch wrestling unless he finds out that Angle's going to wrestle.

On 2010/03/25, Sammartino was honored at the 74th annual Dapper Dan Dinner, a popular awards and charity fundraising event in Pittsburgh, with a lifetime achievement award, for which fellow former Studio Wrestling personalities Bill Cardille, "Jumping" Johnny DeFazio, Dom DeNucci, Frank Durso, and referee Andy "Kid" DePaul were all present.[5]

Post WWF Career (1988 - present)

In his retirement, Sammartino has publicly criticized the direction professional wrestling has taken, making reference to lurid storylines, over-the-top theatrics, and drug and steroid abuse. In particular he has been critical of Vince McMahon Jr., saying that McMahon has been detrimental to his father's creation. Sammartino has refused to provide commentary on WWE-produced retrospectives of his career, instead participating in a series of independently-produced documentaries, including Bruno Sammartino's Legends Never Die, La Roccia, The Passing of the Belt, and The Boys are Back. Despite being the biggest drawing card in wrestling during the 1960s and 1970s, Bruno was not mentioned in the A&E wrestling documentary The Unreal History of Professional Wrestling. He attributes this to McMahon, who provided much of the footage to the production.

Friendship with Giant Baba

Sammartino vs Giant Baba on 1968/08/07 in Osaka
Sammartino was a close friend to Giant Baba, who debuted only a year after Bruno did. The two good rivals spent rookie years together and promised the future stardom to each other. They would both become main eventers and challenged each other's championships. However, the only double title match between Sammartino and Baba was the match that ook place in 1975/05 for the WWWF and PWF championships.

Sammartino was the first one with whom Baba consulted when he was planning to start All Japan Pro-Wrestling in 1972. In 1973/10, Bruno teamed with Tsuruta Tomomi on his Japanese debut match.

Even after WWWF reached to a working agreement with New Japan Pro-Wrestling in 1974, Sammartino continued to refuse wrestling for New Japan and appeared on All Japan cards. Upon the agreement between WWWF and New Japan, a match between Sammartino and Antonio Inoki was planned, but again, Bruno refused the idea.

Baba passed away on 1999/01/31, and Sammartino and Gene Kiniski were brought in for Baba's "retirement ceremony" on 1999/05/02 at Tokyo Dome.

Personal life

Bruno has been married to his wife Carol since 1959 and has three sons, David, and twins Darryl and Danny. He and his wife have lived in Ross Township, Pennsylvania, Allegheny County near Pittsburgh since 1965.[1]



  1. ^ a b c d e Togneri, Chris (2010/12/24). "Bruno Sammartino: Mountain of strength". Pittsburh Tribune-Review. 
  2. ^ a b Davies, Ross (2001). Bruno Sammartino. New York: Rosen. ISBN 0823934322. 
  3. ^ "Bruno Sammartino v. Capitol Wrestling Corporation and Vince McMahon". Wrestling Perspective. 
  4. ^ "WWE Classic Superstars Series 10". WWE. 
  5. ^ Rouvalis, Cristina (1998/10/28). "Wrestling with fame: Bruno Sammartino still a hero to fans". Post-gazette. 

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